apt-get package management

to list all packages installed locally...

dpkg --get-selections | grep -v deinstall

or, simply:

dpkg -l

To update apt-get...

sudo apt-get update

To install somethink...

sudo apt-get install unzip

To check if any packages need to be updated....

sudo apt-get -u upgrade --assume-no

(If you leave off the --assume-no then it will prompt you to upgrade, and will default to Y)

To upgrade packages

sudo apt-get upgrade

When asked:

    Do you want to continue [Y/n]

The capital 'Y' means it is the default. So for 'Yes' just press enter.

If your machine says something like:

27 packages can be updated.
14 updates are security updates.

Then you may perform an upgrade, with sudo apt-get -u upgrade --assume-no as above.

After performing an upgrade, you may have messages like this:

The following packages have been kept back:
  linux-headers-generic linux-headers-virtual linux-image-virtual linux-virtual snapd
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 6 not upgraded.

What is this 'kept back' business?

It means that some of the packages were not upgraded, because their dependencies would've needed to be upgraded too.

You can either


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