C# Version 4

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Dynamic binding

A variable with Dynamic type can be assigned any type.

dynamic f = 1;
((object)f).Dump("F is an integer?");

f = "F is a string";
((object)f).Dump("F is a string NOW?");

Note that in Linqpad to dump a dynamic you can cast it to object.

A handy type in the System.Dynamic namespace is ExpandoObject

dynamic idea = new ExpandoObject();
idea.Who = "Me";
idea.When = DateTime.Now;

(Again, cast to object to be able to dump in linqpad)

Named/optional arguments

This is a bit of a contrived example, don't do this in production.

Given this method... note the default value supplied to some arguments... that makes those arguments optional:

public void LogDetails(string message, ConsoleColor color = ConsoleColor.Gray, ConsoleColor bgColor = ConsoleColor.Black) {
    Console.ForegroundColor = color;
    Console.BackgroundColor = bgColor;

We can specify just the first argument, omitting all the optional arguments:


We can omit just the last argument...

LogDetails("Oh no!", ConsoleColor.Red);

To omit an argument in the middle, we need to use the naming feature:

LogDetails("Exciting", bgColor: ConsoleColor.Magenta);

We can use naming to specify the arguments in whatever order we feel like specifying them....

LogDetails(bgColor: ConsoleColor.DarkBlue, color: ConsoleColor.Yellow, message: "This is a message");

...but I would generally avoid that.

Generic covariant and contravariant

See https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2662369/covariance-and-contravariance-real-world-example

...my favored answer there is a lengthy one, but it provides a rationale as well: https://stackoverflow.com/a/42660356

Embedded interop types

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